“This will be the second time that the United States has been the main force behind the negotiations for a new climate agreement – with the Kyoto Protocol, we have never ratified it, in the case of the Paris Agreement, we have left it.” The Paris Agreement is the culmination of decades of international efforts to combat climate change. Here`s a little story. Finally, instead of giving China and India a passport to pollution, as Trump asserts, the pact is the first time these two major developing countries have agreed on concrete and ambitious climate commitments. The two countries, which are already poised to be world leaders in renewable energy, have made considerable progress in achieving their Paris goals. And since Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement, the Chinese and Indian leaders have reaffirmed their commitment and continued to implement domestic policies to achieve their goals. On the corporate side, shareholders in major fossil fuel industries are increasingly in a hurry to meet the climate challenge. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.
 Over the past three years, U.S. negotiators have participated in UN climate talks, while the government has attempted to use these events to promote fossil fuels. “Being officially outside is clearly damaging to the reputation of the United States,” said Andrew Light, a former senior climate official in the Obama administration. Although the agreement was signed in December 2015, the treaty did not enter into force until November 4, 2016, 30 days after ratification by at least 55 countries representing 55% of global emissions. While mitigation and adjustment require more climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and has mobilized fewer private sector actions.  A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states.