The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute resolution. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification. The approval of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On January 15, 2019, the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242 on 12 March 2019 and rejected it a third time, on 29 March 2019, by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government approved the first phase in Parliament, but Johnson halted the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to receive the necessary support and announced his intention to declare a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the withdrawal agreement; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the withdrawal agreement. It was then concluded by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. On 20 December 2019, after the Conservatives won the 2019 British general election, the House of Commons passed second reading of the withdrawal agreement with a 358-234 lead.
Following the amendments proposed by the House of Lords and the ping-pong between the two houses, the bill was granted royal approval on 23 January 2020, allowing ratification on the British side.  The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the United Kingdom will remain in the internal market to ensure the flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. Von der Leyen and other senior EU officials are sceptical about the UK government`s plan to negotiate a comprehensive agreement on future relations by the end of 2020. They feel that the timetable is too tight. The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021.
 Although substantial changes to legal agreements and procedures are generally not required during the transition period, references to the European Union or the European Economic Area or EU institutions must be amended after 31 January 2020 as long as they contain references to the United Kingdom or the UK institutions. The agreement defines the goods, services and processes associated with them. Any provision of goods or services legally put on the market before leaving the EU may be made available to consumers in the UK or in EU Member States (art.